Prokaryotes, who are they?bacteria rods

Bacteria reproduction is intriguing in that there are 4 different ways in which they are able to reproduce.  But first we need to go back to the basics: there are two different types of cells, Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.  Eukaryotes are the “new and improved” cell type,because they are found in multicellular organisms in addition to being much more complex and higher functioning.  Conversely, Bacteria are prokaryotic cells.  Prokaryotes are simple single-cell organisms with no nucleus or internal compartmentalization; in addition, bacteria cells are surrounded in a protective second layer called a capsule. They have circular DNA that is accompanied by cytoplasm and ribosomes (intracellular fluid and proteins).  Since they do not have many membrane-bound organelles they undergo glycolysis in order to obtain energy (an anaerobic form of cellular respiration).  They very small cells that have been on the planet longer than any other form of life!  Some bacteria have even adapted to live in the most extreme environments, such as hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor!

 

Asexual Bacteria Reproduction:   

The most common type of bacterial reproduction is binary fission, however this is not the their only form of reproduction.  The plasmid is a circular ring of DNA that has a distinct origin where replication begins and ends, this form of DNA is unique to Prokaryotes.  First, a copy of the plasmid is synthesized and then each plasmid migrates towards opposite poles of the cell.  Next the plasma membrane starts to split the cell in two as it curves inward, then the outer cell wall (capsule) grows between the two daughter cells to finish the job. The two daughter cells produced are genetically identical.  Binary fission, though complex on a molecular level, is still the most simple type of reproduction.

However, bacteria are not th5. bacteria reproduction_1e only ones to use binary fission as a means of reproduction.  Plant asexual reproduction utilizes a very similar process to bacteria.  Interestingly enough they are able to reproduce both sexually and asexually as well. Another example is asexual coral reproduction, which undergoes a process similar to binary fission and produces the same result: genetically identical daughter cells (or polyps in the coral’s case).

 

 

 

Sexual Reproduction:

Bacteria undergo sexual reproduction in the simplest sense:  genetic recombination and production of genetically different daughter cells.  Bacteria are able to integrate DNA (genes) of other bacteria, and even non-bacterial DNA into their own plasmid.  There are 3 different mechanisms for sexual reproduction in bacteria:

  1. Conjugation: Reproduction occurs between a F plus donor and F minus cell.   In addition to its “regular” DNA, the F plus cell has a second, smaller plasmid called “F,” which stands for Fertility Factor.  The F minus cell only contains a single plasmid.  The F plus cell duplicates its F plasmid and the copy is then injected directly into the F minus cell through a pilus channel, temporarily connecting the two cells.  The F minus cell then becomes a F plus cell, and though no new cells are created the F plasmid has important genetic information, such as antibacterial resistance instructions.
  2. Transduction:  This type of reproduction only occurs when there a virus infects a bacteria cell and uses it as a host to reproduce viruses.  The virus (bacteriophage) will attach to the bacterial cell and directly inject its RNA into the plasmid.  The plasmid (DNA) then incorporates the RNA into the cell’s preexisting DNA creating a new plasmid.  The RNA incorporated into the cell’s DNA has instructions to create and release more viruses.  Eventually the cell will burst and die, whilst releasing new viruses.  For every one cell there are 1 million viruses reproduced!
  3. Transformation:  This form of reproduction is largely seen when scientists try and manipulate the genes in order to develop a desired result.  Transformation takes place mainly in a lab setting, where different DNA or specific genes are introduced into the environment where the bacteria is being grown.  Bacteria have this unique ability to take in DNA from its environment and incorporate it into its own DNA.  When it undergoes asexual reproduction, a new type of cell is produced because the plasmid contains genes from two different cells.

Growing Bacteria

Bacteria undergo rapid reproduction (asexual) leading to a sudden explosion in the bacteria population.  Of course, bacteria cannot undergo exponential growth forever, mainly due to maxing out carrying capacity of the area it inhabits.  Instead it follows a logarithmic growth pattern, in which there is rapid growth period (more births than deaths) followed by a plateau (births equal deaths) and finally a decline in population (more deaths than births).  There are many ways to both slow down and speed up bacterial reproduction, research in this field is still being conducted, but it has been proven that playing Mozart music stimulates the bacteria and in turn speeds up reproduction.  In Germany, they play Mozart at waste-water treatment plant in order to speed up the breakdown of waste.  There is a lot more to these “simple” Prokaryotes than the name implies!

10 Tips for How to Save the Earth 

It can feel discouraging in this day and age to even know where to start. Everyone alive now has heard all their lives that the world is dying and it is up to us to save it. This huge feat seems to weigh heavy on us, specifically because it seems almost impossible to help things change for the better. Many of us don’t know where to even begin. But what you may not realize is that it is all about small, sustainable, minimal changes. These changes become bigger, more impactful changes, until it just because your way of living, your lifestyle, purse. The same rule goes for something like changing how you eat. 

By changing your lifestyle, you change your life. But this is not done by huge and life changing fad diets all at once where you abuse and manipulate your body to gain hard and fast results. Rather, it is done in the small everyday things. Changes such as drinking more water (out of reusable bottles, of course), eating one vegetable, at least, with each meal. And cutting out carbs and processed foods. Think about your body as the earth, and these small everyday changes as the ones we make for the environment. Whenever you get overwhelmed with how big of a feat it is to save the world, just remember that it is the small changes that add up.

1. Drive Less

Driving less can be done in so many ways. The gas emitted from cars is one of the worst possible things you can do for the earth. The fact that we have gone from a society that used horse and buddy only a few hundred years ago and now a culture that drives vehicles anywhere and everywhere is a terrible fate for the earth. We have cars, trains, busses, airplanes, botes, and so many other motor vehicles. This is a blessing for saving time and getting around, but a curse for the environment. We already know this is not an easy problem to solve. There is no way to totally get motor vehicles off the road. The way our world works now, jumping on a flight from one side of the world to the other is a casual thing. We take cars for anything longer than a short walk across the parking lot. It is just so hard to even think about a world where cars are not used all day, every day. We are too spaced out, people move far away from their families and friends, it’s nearly impossible. But what we can do is cut down on the amount of motor vehicle usage. This means a few things.

2. Carpooling

Carpooling is a wonderful thing. It even has a lane of its own! Carpooling can be done with friends or acquaintances, but the most important thing is that you do it as much as possible. If you are all going to one location, go the extra mile (literally) to pick each other up as to cut down on fuel emissions. This does so much good for the environment. Carpooling is a fun activity because it means more time spent with those you love, and less time spent harming the earth as a one man show. You can do this by making sure to follow good and proper etiquette, such as asking people who live close to you instead of those who live far. Offering to help pay for gas. And driving yourself and offering to pick others up. It may seem like a small thing, but it is a huge thing.

3. Get Some Exercise

Getting out and on your bike can make a big change for the earth! Choosing to swap out driving or using another form of transportation is not only good for the earth, it is good for you! You can start small. Ride your bike to the coffee shop or grocery store down the street. Then, once you build up endurance, move on to riding your bike to your job. Before you know it, you will be riding your bike everywhere! Get a comfortable seats, a solid helmet, some pads, and a basket, then get out there and do it! This is so good for your body. We are so prone to remaining sedentary in this culture, but you can change the norm, and save the earth while doing it!

4. Talk About It

Talking about things changes things. When we talk to others, it gets them thinking, in the same way others talking to us gets us thinking. Good conversations crete change. Challenging those you know through talking with them about this information you have learned changes things. You can make an impact by what you share online and what you say to those around you. Find platforms and ways to get topics of conversation and environmental change in our culture out there. Remind others that change starts with them. Share what you do and how the small, daily changes have impacted your life and our planet for the good. We live in a world where everyone is an expert and anyone can share. Be the change you wish to see and become an expert for the good of the earth. This is the best way to create a ripple!

5. Remember Supply and Demand

If you are anything like me, you may wonder how in the world changing your personal lifestyle or the lifestyle of your family could ever make a difference. Here is how: one person matters, because one person can inspire another, and that person could inspire another. Before you know it, everyone may be on board. This allows for total world change. It is similar to voting. Every vote really does matter! Another reason it matters practically that you change, even if you feel you’re the only one, is because the world is dependent on supply and demand. The less energy and resources you choose to use, the less are created.

6. Volunteer

There are so many ways you can volunteer to save the earth. No matter where you live or what you enjoy, you will be able to find tons of volunteer opportunities that will help you do so much good in the world and to the world. The whole point of sustainability is that you are choosing to go the extra mile. But as you go the extra mile, you are doing that that uniquely interest you. Start something new or join a current effort. It may take extra effort, but choose things that fit into your daily schedules and lifestyles. Trade out common weekend and weeknight plans to help. Take your days off to join something fun and exciting that makes the world a healthier, better, and cleaner place to live and love!

Plant A Tree

Planting a tree gives back to the earth what we have taken from it for so long. So many trees get cut down, which impacts not only the planet, but even us. It gets hotter and harder to breathe. We have lost entire forest through all the trees that have been cut down to sustain human needs. This has taken a toll and you can help. This can be done by deciding to find an empty place in your yard and planting one of your own. It is easy, cheap, and easy. The benefits are endless. Trees help us breathe better, they cool us down and that in turn allows us to turn our AC’s up, they clean the air and even provide various fruits and vegetables. Planting a tree takes very minimal effort and upkeep, and the yield is great (and sweet!).

Partner With A Community Garden

Community gardens are wonderful places. The help and community they provide people with is invaluable. If you are unsure of what a community garden is and its role in the environment, I will explain.

Community gardens are places where a group of people in the community get together in order to care for a small garden that gives them healthy and natural food that does not dig deep into their pockets, as well as give the same to others. Many times these gardens are created in communities who do not have the funds to go to the grocery store and purchase expensive (not to mention, pesticide ridden) fruits and veggies. Therefore, they get together and help each other to live healthy and feed their families whole, natural food.

This is a great thing and is very common in this nation. There are about 18,000 all over the states! This is good news because it means if you want to get involved in a community garden, you can easily choose one in your area and do so. Maybe you want the food for yourself, or maybe you want to help in the lives of others. Maybe you want to donate, or maybe you want to actually SEE the organic food being grown, instead of just believing that the produce you purchase at your local grocer is fully organic and being made the way it should.

If your area does not currently have a community garden, you can easily start one yourself. This is a time consuming effort at first, but as soon as you get others on board, it is pretty simple. Community gardens are not meant to take more than a few hours out of your weekly schedule to give back and get as well.

Local Water Clean Ups

No matter what body of water it is, whether it be the ocean or a river or a lake, there is ALWAYS a need to get a clean up crew out there. Being part of a clean up for a body of water is one of the easiest and most impactful ways to care for the earth. One Saturday afternoon out of each week is all you need to get something like this done, and you will be making a huge impact even with that small amount of time you dedicate! This is innovation and teamwork at its best. The reason for this is because there is rarely a government agency who cleans up trash, and people these days don’t pay attention to how they are treating the earth for the most part. The removal of trash is more than just an aesthetic thing. It makes the water and water animal habitats safe and protected.

Become An Advocate

Becoming an advocate is so important to spur this movement forward. We covered this a little bit in point four, suggesting you talk about it with others. Advocacy is similar to talking about it with others, but there are additional action steps you can take as well. You can be a voice in changning policy for the better. This aspect can take on a variety of actions that pertain to your particular skill set. You can street canvas, promote campaigns on your social media outlets, get the word out through creativity and make online resources, create documentaries and even organize various events, if that is something you are good at. There are national advocacy clubs you can volunteer with, which you can find by doing a simple Google search.

Teach a Class

If you care about the earth, there are certain changes that you are likely beginning to make in your everyday life. Maybe you already have made changes! Are you a vegan? Then you can teach a class on how to make delicious plant based meals. Are you using all natural, eco-friendly products? Then teach a class in your community, even at your home, that can help others adopt this practice. Are you into upcycling? Teach a class on how to do it with a variety of things in the home. There are so many ways you can make saving the earth an everyday, easy to do things that others can get on board with as well by getting educated on small, sustainable steps! Be the change you wish to see by helping others to be the change along with you. 

7. Use Less Waste

Reusable things are all the rage these days, and they are so cute as well. Reusable water bottles. Reusable shopping bags, you name it and there is reusable version. I was in a store the other day where you could purchase a glass bottle of olive oil and when it was gone, come back to the store for a refill and money off of the refill. Brining a reusable mug to coffee shops will save you money and plastic waste too. Using reusable bags when you clean instead of paper towels is another great way to save on waste. Purchasing metal straws that you bring along with you as you eat out instead of using plastic straws is another great way to use less waste. Have you ever watched those youtube videos with the people who only use enough waste to fit into a mason jar a year? Wonder how they do this? They get creative! Simple things like shopping at farmers markets for everything instead of purchasing plastic wrapped food is a great to save on waste, or opting into washing your dishes instead of taking the easy road and getting paper plates, cups, and plastic forks. If you choose to be intentional, you too can cut down significantly on waste. Don’t buy into the american way of living where we feel we need to use all the plastic, paper, and other materials that in the end will harm the earth. There are so many options and they truly add up to one big life altering, world changing move. And when you do it successfully, onlookers can see that they can do it as well, and that it really is possible to use less waste.

8. Create Eco-Friendly spaces

I remember it like it was yesterday. I walked into a home that my husband and I were viewing and looking to possibly rent. The real estate agent who was showing it to us mentioned eco friendly and fuel efficient additions to the home. Things like washers and dryers and dishwashers that use less water and energy and things like that. But then he also made a comment about the windows.He said they were eco friendly because they sealed the AC in as well as tinted so it did not get as hot, helping to run the air less, and they were even bullet proof for safety. Prior to this conversation, I didn’t even know these types of windows existed. But thankfully, this is the world we live in. Those renovating their homes are making smart decisions that not only mean treating the earth better, but also taking the utility bills way down. This was a smart house, one that truly created an eco friendly space. But even if you don’t have the money to redo the entire home with remodeling and switching out major aspects, you can always make small changes that make a big difference! Things like using energy efficient bulbs or opening the windows for a breeze instead of turning the air on can make a huge difference. 

Train Your Kids 

Another great way to create eco-friendly spaces is by teaching the people in your house simple ways to live that help the earth. You can train your kids up to turn all the lights off before they leave a room, to use less water by turning the tap off while they brush their teeth or scrub dishes, take quicker showers and to reduce, reuse, and recycle. These things, which may be considered small and possibly insignificant actions really train kids to do the best for the earth, and this is something they will take into their adult lives with them and teach their own children! If everyone raise their kids to mind the earth and their impact on it, the world would be such a better place in the generations to come. But it all starts now, in your home, with you as the leader of the movement. This is yet another way in which you can practically be the change. 

9. Get Educated 

Though this point seems like it should be at the top of the list, I choose to place it at the bottom because learning never stops. Growing never ceases. No matter how much you know about the practical things you can do to save the earth, there is always more to learn and new ideas to explore. For me, following those on social media who are also living eco-friendly helps me to get ideas, tips, and make changes in my own life.Going to classes is a big part of getting educated in these matters, learning about how we can best help the earth and exactly what is going on with the earth. Education is important because in this culture, we often push aside the truth about the earth dying for the sake of remaining comfortable and stuck in our ways. If you are educated, you have the grounds to speak out on these matters and really create a ripple of change that lasts. Remember, we are all on a journey of learning together. Don’t ever be scared to humble yourself and get deeper and higher education. 

10. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle

It only seems fitting for this to be the 10th point on this list. If you ask any eco-friendly person who walks the walk what they advice for a beginner to get started on this journey, they will tell you to get comfy with the 3r’s. These are rules to live by. Reduce potential waste, reuse and upcycle your possessions whenever possible, and recycle everything that can be recycled. Instead of getting overwhelmed by saving the earth, you can start with these 3.They inform every aspect of the eco-friendly life, anyway. Get used to living by these, and you’re well on your way to saving the earth with how you impact earth!

Final Thoughts on Bacteria Reproduction

When most people hear the word bacteria they believe it is the enemy; however that is not always the case.  In fact, bacteria are vital to maintaining our health. For example, the bacteria in our digestive tract is necessary for food digestion – something crucial to survival.  Yes, of course there are many bacteria species that are deadly and disease causing; but we must keep in mind the positive impact these little guys have on our life!

http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/A/Avery.html#Transduction